As a castable and malleable alloy, the production process of beryllium copper alloy and its machining materials are divided into beryllium-copper center alloy produced by carbothermal reduction method, smelting of beryllium copper alloy, ingot of copper alloy and beryllium copper alloy plate, strip, There are four steps in the production of the bar.
The production of beryllium-copper center alloy by carbothermal reduction means that beryllium in beryllium oxide is directly reduced by carbon in molten copper, and then alloyed in copper. The beryllium copper machining center alloy produced by carbothermal reduction method in industry is carried out in an electric arc furnace.
The electric arc furnace is placed in a sealed container, and the operator wears a gas mask, and firstly 10% -13% beryllium oxide and 3% -7 % Of carbon powder is mixed and ground in a ball mill, and then a layer of copper, a fortune-telling beryllium beryllium and carbon powder assimilate are charged into an electric arc furnace in batches, the electricity is melted, and the power is stirred after melting. The temperature in the furnace is 2000 Reached Celsius.
When cooled to 950 degrees Celsius-1,000 degrees Celsius, the beryllium carbide, carbon, and residual powder of the alloy name floated and slag was removed, and then cast out of the furnace at 950 degrees Celsius to form 2.25 kg or 5 kg ingots. In the order of production of beryllium copper alloy plates, strips and strips, the ingots are in turn-general milling-heating (800 ° C-900 ° C)-hot rolling-water quenching-milling surface-cold rolling-degreasing －Solution heat treatment—Pickling—Passivation.
The smelting material used for smelting beryllium copper alloy collects new metals, scraps, secondary remelts and core alloys. Beryllium is generally used as a beryllium-copper center alloy (containing 4% beryllium); nickel is sometimes used as a new metal, namely electrolytic nickel, but nickel and copper center alloys (containing 20% nickel) are preferred; cobalt is used as a cobalt-copper center alloy (cobalt) 5.5%), individuals also use pure cobalt directly; titanium to
-Copper center alloy (15% titanium, 27.4% titanium) intervened, and individuals also directly intervened in sponge titanium; magnesium intervened with magnesium-copper center alloy (35.7% magnesium included). Debris (milling chips, cutting chips, etc.) and smaller gap wastes generated during machining are generally cast into ingots as the melting furnace charge after secondary remelting; in addition to the recycled remelt, it is also used in batching Generally, some forging waste and copper machining waste are directly inserted into the furnace.
Beryllium copper alloy ingots are divided into non-vacuum ingots and vacuum ingots. At present, the non-vacuum ingots used in the production of beryllium copper alloys include inclined iron mold ingots, no-flow ingots, semi-continuous ingots and continuous ingots.
The first two systems are only used in smaller production plants. Experts said that in order to obtain beryllium copper alloy ingots with low gas content, small segregation, small amount of assimilation, and evenly dense crystalline structure, the best method is vacuum ingoting after vacuum melting. The vacuum ingot has a significant effect on ensuring the content of easily oxidizable elements such as beryllium and titanium. It can also pass inert gas to protect the ingot process when needed.